Answer the following questions with the file provided as context

1) Why is the data per capita?

2) Run a hypothesis test to compare 2014 against 2020 in terms of emissions?

Use Statcrunch or Statkey but show full documentation.

3) Why might 2020 be a poor year to choose?

4) Redo 2) with 2019

5) State conclusion.

# Category: Statistics

Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Textbook: Chapter 8

Lesson

Minimum of 1 scholarly source

In your reference for this assignment, be sure to include both your text/class materials AND your outside reading(s).

Confidence Intervals

In everyday terms, a confidence interval is the range of values around a sample statistic (such as mean or proportion) within which clinicians can expect to get the same results if they repeat the study protocol or intervention, including measuring the same outcomes the same ways. As you ask yourself, “Will I get the same results if I use this research?”, you must address the precision of study findings, which is determined by the Confidence Interval. If the CI around the sample statistic is narrow, you can be confident you will get close to the same results if you implement the same research in your practice.

Consider the following example. Suppose that you did a systematic review of studies on the effect of tai chi exercise on sleep quality, and you found that tai chi affected sleep quality in older people. If, according to your study, you found the lower boundary of the CI to be .49, the study statistic to be 0.87, and the upper boundary to be 1.25, this would mean that each end limit is 0.38 from the sample statistic, which is a relatively narrow CI.

(UB + LB)/2 = Statistic [(1.25 + .49)/2 = .87]

Keep in mind that a mean difference of 0 indicates there is no difference; this CI does not contain 0. Therefore, the sample statistic is statistically significant and unlikely to occur by chance.

Because this was a systematic review, and tai chi exercise has been established from the studies you assessed as helping people sleep, based on the sample statistics and the CI, clinicians could now use your study and confidently include tai chi exercises among possible recommendations for patients who have difficulty sleeping.

Now you can apply your knowledge of CIs to create your own studies and make wise decisions about whether to base your patient care on a particular research finding.

Initial Post Instructions

Find an example of a confidence interval in the news, scholarly source or medical journal. Summarize the article/study. Does the article/study include the sample size and the level of confidence used to create the confidence interval? Explain what the confidence interval means in context of the news article or scholarly source.

Follow-Up Post Instructions

Respond to at least two peers or one peer and the instructor. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

Here are some suggested responses

How do you think the confidence interval that was presented in the study was calculated?

Explain the mathematical concepts could you extract from this article/study.

Textbook: https://openstax.org/details/books/introductory-business-statistics

Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Textbook: Chapter 8

Lesson

Minimum of 1 scholarly source

In your reference for this assignment, be sure to include both your text/class materials AND your outside reading(s).

Confidence Intervals

In everyday terms, a confidence interval is the range of values around a sample statistic (such as mean or proportion) within which clinicians can expect to get the same results if they repeat the study protocol or intervention, including measuring the same outcomes the same ways. As you ask yourself, “Will I get the same results if I use this research?”, you must address the precision of study findings, which is determined by the Confidence Interval. If the CI around the sample statistic is narrow, you can be confident you will get close to the same results if you implement the same research in your practice.

Consider the following example. Suppose that you did a systematic review of studies on the effect of tai chi exercise on sleep quality, and you found that tai chi affected sleep quality in older people. If, according to your study, you found the lower boundary of the CI to be .49, the study statistic to be 0.87, and the upper boundary to be 1.25, this would mean that each end limit is 0.38 from the sample statistic, which is a relatively narrow CI.

(UB + LB)/2 = Statistic [(1.25 + .49)/2 = .87]

Keep in mind that a mean difference of 0 indicates there is no difference; this CI does not contain 0. Therefore, the sample statistic is statistically significant and unlikely to occur by chance.

Because this was a systematic review, and tai chi exercise has been established from the studies you assessed as helping people sleep, based on the sample statistics and the CI, clinicians could now use your study and confidently include tai chi exercises among possible recommendations for patients who have difficulty sleeping.

Now you can apply your knowledge of CIs to create your own studies and make wise decisions about whether to base your patient care on a particular research finding.

Initial Post Instructions

Find an example of a confidence interval in the news, scholarly source or medical journal. Summarize the article/study. Does the article/study include the sample size and the level of confidence used to create the confidence interval? Explain what the confidence interval means in context of the news article or scholarly source.

Follow-Up Post Instructions

Respond to at least two peers or one peer and the instructor. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

Here are some suggested responses

How do you think the confidence interval that was presented in the study was calculated?

Explain the mathematical concepts could you extract from this article/study.

Textbook: https://openstax.org/details/books/introductory-business-statistics

For this report use data from a business problem (from your own business if you wish) to classify the data by type, summarize it visually and interpret your charts or tables. Identify a probability distribution that is appropriate for analysis of your data. Analyze your data using at least one hypothesis test or regression summaries, with explanations.

The document titled “GreenFinalReport” is an example paper.

For this report use data from a business problem (from your own business if you wish) to classify the data by type, summarize it visually and interpret your charts or tables. Identify a probability distribution that is appropriate for analysis of your data. Analyze your data using at least one hypothesis test or regression summaries, with explanations.

The document titled “GreenFinalReport” is an example paper.

You will use a cholesterol dataset created from National Health and Nutrition

Examination Survey (NHANES) for the year 2011-2012. The NHANES III is a national survey

that combines individual participant survey responses with laboratory data to better understand

the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States. You can learn more

about NHANES III at the Center of Disease Control website: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/

about_nhanes.htm

The survey is based on complex sampling design that oversamples subpopulations of interest (e.g.,elderly individuals), so any formal statistical analysis must utilize sampling weights and employ survey data analytic methods to produce valid results. We will ignore the sampling design and weights for this exercise and assume that the data is a simple random sample drawn from the U.S. population.

• Complete Table

• For each continuous variable

o State test you chose and why

o State assumptions and how you checked them

o Show STATA histogram, qqplot, and boxplot by group

o Show STATA output for hypothesis test chosen

o Summarize results in 1-2 sentences as you would in scientific paper

• For each categorical Variables:

o State test you chose and why

o Show STATA output of frequencies and test results (two-way table)

o Summarize result in 1-2 sentences as you would in scientific paper

Brief Report Writing

1. Introduction: The main purpose of this section is to answer “What is the rationale for the

scientific question being asked?”

2. Methods: This section should cover the statistical methods you decide to use to answer the

scientific questions, and the steps you need to perform the data analysis. You should write

this section as if you are writing for any peer-reviewed publication.

3. Results: The results section needs to mimic a peer review publication, (e.g., hypothesis testing).

4. Discussion: In this section you need to elaborate on your findings in the context of the scientific question, and how your statistical analysis results can be used to support your statement.

Demonstrate

Steps to Complete Week 5 Lab

Use the Weeks 3 and 5 spreadsheets from the Weeks 3 and 5 Lessons to help you answer the questions below.

Step 1: Your instructor will provide you with 10 values to use for this lab.

Gather 10 MORE of your own to add to the 10 provided by your instructor. Do the following:

Survey or measure 10 people to find their heights. Determine the mean and standard deviation for the 20 values by using the Week 3 Excel spreadsheet. Post a screen shot of the portion of the spreadsheet that helped you determine these values. How does your height compare to the mean (average) height of the 20 values? Is your height taller, shorter, or the same as the mean of the sample?

Note: The following image is just an example. They are NOT the values you should be using for your lab. Your instructor should have sent you our data values for your Week 5 Lab. Please reach out to your instructor if you do not have your data values.

Data Example of 10 people with different heights

Data Example of 10 people with different heights

(your spreadsheet will have 20 values—10 from your instructor and 10 from your own data gathering).

Step 2: Give some background information on the group of people you used in your study. You might consider using the following questions to guide your answer.

How did you choose the participants for your study? What was the sampling method: systematic, convenience, cluster, stratified, simple random?

What part of the country did your study take place in?

What are the age ranges of your participants?

How many of each gender did you have in your study?

What are other interesting factors about your group?

Step 3: Use the Week 5 Excel spreadsheet for the following.

(Use the Empirical Rule tab from the spreadsheet). Determine the 68%, 95%, and 99.7% values of the Empirical Rule in terms of the 20 heights in your height study.

What do these values tell you?

Post a screen shot of your work from the Week 5 Excel spreadsheet.

Week 5 Spreadsheet Example

(Use the normal probability tab from the spreadsheet). Based on your study results, what percent of the study participants are shorter than you? What percent are taller than you?

Post a screen shot of your work from the Week 5 Excel spreadsheet.

Example: If my height is 73 inches, then 20.86% of the relevant population is shorter. The other 79.14%, of course, is taller.

Week 5 Spreadsheet Example

Step 4: Be sure your name is on the Word document, save it, and then submit it under “Assignments” and “Week 5: Lab”.

You will use a cholesterol dataset created from National Health and Nutrition

Examination Survey (NHANES) for the year 2011-2012. The NHANES III is a national survey

that combines individual participant survey responses with laboratory data to better understand

the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States. You can learn more

about NHANES III at the Center of Disease Control website: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/

about_nhanes.htm

The survey is based on complex sampling design that oversamples subpopulations of interest (e.g.,elderly individuals), so any formal statistical analysis must utilize sampling weights and employ survey data analytic methods to produce valid results. We will ignore the sampling design and weights for this exercise and assume that the data is a simple random sample drawn from the U.S. population.

• Complete Table

• For each continuous variable

o State test you chose and why

o State assumptions and how you checked them

o Show STATA histogram, qqplot, and boxplot by group

o Show STATA output for hypothesis test chosen

o Summarize results in 1-2 sentences as you would in scientific paper

• For each categorical Variables:

o State test you chose and why

o Show STATA output of frequencies and test results (two-way table)

o Summarize result in 1-2 sentences as you would in scientific paper

Brief Report Writing

1. Introduction: The main purpose of this section is to answer “What is the rationale for the

scientific question being asked?”

2. Methods: This section should cover the statistical methods you decide to use to answer the

scientific questions, and the steps you need to perform the data analysis. You should write

this section as if you are writing for any peer-reviewed publication.

3. Results: The results section needs to mimic a peer review publication, (e.g., hypothesis testing).

4. Discussion: In this section you need to elaborate on your findings in the context of the scientific question, and how your statistical analysis results can be used to support your statement.

Demonstrate

Steps to Complete Week 5 Lab

Use the Weeks 3 and 5 spreadsheets from the Weeks 3 and 5 Lessons to help you answer the questions below.

Step 1: Your instructor will provide you with 10 values to use for this lab.

Gather 10 MORE of your own to add to the 10 provided by your instructor. Do the following:

Survey or measure 10 people to find their heights. Determine the mean and standard deviation for the 20 values by using the Week 3 Excel spreadsheet. Post a screen shot of the portion of the spreadsheet that helped you determine these values. How does your height compare to the mean (average) height of the 20 values? Is your height taller, shorter, or the same as the mean of the sample?

Note: The following image is just an example. They are NOT the values you should be using for your lab. Your instructor should have sent you our data values for your Week 5 Lab. Please reach out to your instructor if you do not have your data values.

Data Example of 10 people with different heights

Data Example of 10 people with different heights

(your spreadsheet will have 20 values—10 from your instructor and 10 from your own data gathering).

Step 2: Give some background information on the group of people you used in your study. You might consider using the following questions to guide your answer.

How did you choose the participants for your study? What was the sampling method: systematic, convenience, cluster, stratified, simple random?

What part of the country did your study take place in?

What are the age ranges of your participants?

How many of each gender did you have in your study?

What are other interesting factors about your group?

Step 3: Use the Week 5 Excel spreadsheet for the following.

(Use the Empirical Rule tab from the spreadsheet). Determine the 68%, 95%, and 99.7% values of the Empirical Rule in terms of the 20 heights in your height study.

What do these values tell you?

Post a screen shot of your work from the Week 5 Excel spreadsheet.

Week 5 Spreadsheet Example

(Use the normal probability tab from the spreadsheet). Based on your study results, what percent of the study participants are shorter than you? What percent are taller than you?

Post a screen shot of your work from the Week 5 Excel spreadsheet.

Example: If my height is 73 inches, then 20.86% of the relevant population is shorter. The other 79.14%, of course, is taller.

Week 5 Spreadsheet Example

Step 4: Be sure your name is on the Word document, save it, and then submit it under “Assignments” and “Week 5: Lab”.

single case research design- paper should be about ABA therapy (applied behavioral analysis) reducing problem behavior in a single child with autism, to reduce behavior there are certain formulas to follow they are included in the powerpoint slides attached. must create data (make up your own SPSS data) include graphs/data charts. I also included the paper guidelines. my elbow is broken and am not able to type the paper on time so thank you!